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Caching - System Design Building Blocks

Updated: Jun 11, 2022


What is caching?


A cache is a hardware or software component that acts as a temporary storage allowing fast access to data stored in it. The primary objective behind using a cache in any application is to improve performance. The process of storing and accessing the data from cache is known as caching.


Caching is used everywhere. It is used in different layers like operating systems, CDN, DNS and also by various applications and services.


If the requested data or item is available in the cache it is called a cache hit and if the requested data is not available in the cache it is called a cache miss. If implemented correctly, caches can help improve response times, reduce load on database, and save computation costs.


Retrieving data from a persistent storage like database can take a considerable amount of time, caches reduce the response time of our API by providing fast access to data. Mainly caches are used to avoid frequency of network calls to database and to store the results of operations that are computationally expensive. Caches can help bring down the computation costs especially if your application is running on a cloud.


How caching is useful?


There are a wide variety of use cases where caching can be applied. Some of the scenarios where caching is useful are:


Frequently Requested Data


One of the popular scenarios where caching is useful is if you have to frequently query for some commonly used data. For example, in a service like twitter each time when we open a user profile, a common query is to get the count of followers/following for that user. This is not a very frequently changing data and is a good candidate for caching. You can fetch this data from database the first time when any user tries to access it, after which it can be cached and each subsequent request thereafter can be served from cache until the data becomes stale, which helps us avoid network calls to database for each request.


Also, if you remember we have made use of caching in our URL shortener system design to cache the most frequently used short URLs, this is another example which shows the real life use case of a cache.


Expensive Computations


Some APIs are simple and have fast response times, while others might require you to do multiple intermediary steps involving slow and heavy operations that might delay the response time.


A good example for this is a user feed API in a service like instagram or facebook. Displaying user feed for a particular user is mostly based on custom algorithms that may involve several computationally expensi